R2 Solutions

History of R2

Recognizing the need for a comprehensive certification program that captured the operational and environmental concerns of the industry, the EPA convened a multi-stakeholder process to develop the “Responsible Recycling practices for Use in Accredited Certifications Programs” (R2).  The goal was to create a voluntary, market-based mechanism for ensuring best practices, which would also provide essential information/assurances to prospective customers.

The process

The development of the standard occurred through a transparent, balanced, consensus-based process.  The standards development process took three years from start to finish.  The multi-stakeholder group included representatives from:

  • the U.S. EPA,
  • regulators from state agencies,
  • electronics recyclers, refurbishers, and their trade associations
  • OEMs/customers of electronics recycling services,
  • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs).  Representatives from environmental justice organizations participated actively for much for the R2 development process, but withdrew towards the end.  


Once the standard was finalized, it was reviewed and approved by ANAB, the organization that provides accreditation to the certification bodies that conduct the third party audits of electronics recycling facilities.  See “Becoming R2 Certified” for additional information about obtaining R2 certification.